Although current Lithium-ion batteries dominate the portable electrochemical storage market, there is limited room for improvement. They have a theoretical energy density approaching 1 kWh/kg, but in practice deliver no more than 200 Wh/kg. Similarly within a year they will be delivering close to 1 kWh/liter, over 30% of theoretical.
Metal (lithium) oxygen and Lithium sulfur have the capability to exceed these values on a weight basis, and indeed Li/S already does. However, their volumetric capacities are likely to be significantly lower than Li-ion even if all the technical challenges are overcome. I will discuss the opportunities and challenges.
This work is being supported by NYSERDA.